Civilisations or permanent human settlements were now being established – villages, towns, cities, which in turn created rural and urban communities. People were now learning to share space and the realisation that working together could create more benefits than living separately. There was now time to develop skills and technology such as metalwork, the wheel, pottery, sailing vessels, housing, ensuring clean water, waste disposal, healthcare and education, the same basic needs we look for today.
Planning became important for successful harvests giving rise to calendars. Communities needed organization, so governments and leaders gained importance by making rules and settling disputes. Skills and ability were becoming valued allowing the skilled individual to generate an income for self and for their family. With payment for skills came economies creating layers within the society based on occupation, income, and possessions.
Ownership of land and private property grew indicating a greater social complexity. The greater the social complexity the more social layers exist leading to the development of a ruling elite, class struggles and the need for armies and police forces to protect people, property and land.
Trading between different civilisations would increase as ships grew larger and new products were developed. Those societies that ensured a more equal distribution of wealth and a sense of fairness such as ensuring all houses could access clean water and sanitation created a more stable society and were much more likely to be successful and survive.