08 – Pretani Associates – Isles of Pretani Series – Early Civilisations

These early civilisations or permanent human settlements are captured in ruins, monuments, jewellery, art, pottery and hunting and farming implements. Civilisations will have developed near rivers, fertile plains and coastal areas. Civilisations will have emerged independently and the first ones were:

  • Mesopotamia or the Fertile Crescent – The Fertile Crescent was home to eight key farming crops important in early agriculture – wild progenitors to emmer wheat, einkorn, barley, flax, chick pea, lentil, bitter vetch and four of the five most important species of domesticated animals – cows, goats, sheep and pigs. The other species being the horse).
  • The Nile Valley, Egypt

These civilisations would soon be followed by many more and the following are only some examples.

The Indus Valley

This region was the beginning of agriculture in the north-western regions of South Asia. It covers an area of land referred to as north-east Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. The world’s first known sanitation system is found in this region. While some house were larger than others all houses had access to water and drainage facilities This sense of fairness reflects a society that saw the importance of relatively low wealth concentration – equality was important.

 Mohenjo-daro is one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, and one of the world’s earliest major urban settlements. The name Mohenjo-daro is a modern name as the city’s original name is unknown

Other examples of early civilisations are, The Levant. Norte Chico, Phoenicia, Carthage and The Yellow River. Civilisations developed across the world and just like today food would be brought into urban areas from the rural farm growing regions and sold. Across Europe settlements would became established in regions such as the Po Valley, the Danube, The Thames and the river Bann.